Exiftool help documentation

    exiftool - Read and write meta information in files

    Drag and drop files or folders onto the exiftool executable to display
    meta information, or rename to "exiftool.exe" and run from the command
    line to access all exiftool features.

    This stand-alone Windows version allows simple command-line options to
    be added to the name of the executable (in brackets and separated by
    spaces at the end of the name), providing a mechanism to use options
    when launched via the mouse. For example, changing the executable name
    to "exiftool(-a -u -g1 -w txt).exe" gives a drag-and-drop utility which
    generates sidecar ".txt" files with detailed meta information. As
    shipped, the -k option is added to cause exiftool to pause before
    terminating (keeping the command window open). Options may also be added
    to the "Target" property of a Windows shortcut to the executable.

    exiftool [*OPTIONS*] [-*TAG*...] [--*TAG*...] *FILE*...

    exiftool [*OPTIONS*] -*TAG*[+-<]=[*VALUE*]... *FILE*...

    exiftool [*OPTIONS*] -tagsFromFile *SRCFILE* [-*SRCTAG*[>*DSTTAG*]...]

    exiftool [ -ver | -list[w|f|r|wf|g[*NUM*]|d|x] ]

    For specific examples, see the EXAMPLES sections below.

    This documentation is displayed if exiftool is run without an input
    *FILE* when one is expected.

    A command-line interface to Image::ExifTool, used for reading and
    writing meta information in a variety of file types. *FILE* is one or
    more source file names, directory names, or "-" for the standard input.
    Metadata is read from source files and printed in readable form to the
    console (or written to output text files with -w).

    To write or delete metadata, tag values are assigned using the
    -*TAG*=[*VALUE*] syntax, or the -geotag option. To copy or move
    metadata, the -tagsFromFile feature is used. By default the original
    files are preserved with "_original" appended to their names -- be sure
    to verify that the new files are OK before erasing the originals. Once
    in write mode, exiftool will ignore any read-specific options.

    Note: If *FILE* is a directory name then only supported file types in
    the directory are processed (in write mode only writable types are
    processed). However, files may be specified by name, or the -ext option
    may be used to force processing of files with any extension. Hidden
    files in the directory are also processed. Adding the -r option causes
    subdirectories to be processed recursively, but those with names
    beginning with "." are skipped unless -r. is used.

    Below is a list of file types and meta information formats currently
    supported by ExifTool (r = read, w = write, c = create):

      File Types
      3FR   r     | DV    r     | JSON  r     | ODT   r     | RIFF  r
      3G2   r/w   | DVB   r/w   | K25   r     | OFR   r     | RSRC  r
      3GP   r/w   | DYLIB r     | KDC   r     | OGG   r     | RTF   r
      A     r     | EIP   r     | KEY   r     | OGV   r     | RW2   r/w
      AA    r     | EPS   r/w   | LA    r     | OPUS  r     | RWL   r/w
      AAX   r/w   | EPUB  r     | LFP   r     | ORF   r/w   | RWZ   r
      ACR   r     | ERF   r/w   | LNK   r     | OTF   r     | RM    r
      AFM   r     | EXE   r     | M2TS  r     | PAC   r     | SEQ   r
      AI    r/w   | EXIF  r/w/c | M4A/V r/w   | PAGES r     | SO    r
      AIFF  r     | EXR   r     | MAX   r     | PBM   r/w   | SR2   r/w
      APE   r     | EXV   r/w/c | MEF   r/w   | PCD   r     | SRF   r
      ARW   r/w   | F4A/V r/w   | MIE   r/w/c | PDB   r     | SRW   r/w
      ASF   r     | FFF   r/w   | MIFF  r     | PDF   r/w   | SVG   r
      AVI   r     | FLA   r     | MKA   r     | PEF   r/w   | SWF   r
      AZW   r     | FLAC  r     | MKS   r     | PFA   r     | THM   r/w
      BMP   r     | FLIF  r/w   | MKV   r     | PFB   r     | TIFF  r/w
      BPG   r     | FLV   r     | MNG   r/w   | PFM   r     | TORRENT r
      BTF   r     | FPF   r     | MOBI  r     | PGF   r     | TTC   r
      CHM   r     | FPX   r     | MODD  r     | PGM   r/w   | TTF   r
      COS   r     | GIF   r/w   | MOI   r     | PLIST r     | VCF   r
      CR2   r/w   | GZ    r     | MOS   r/w   | PICT  r     | VRD   r/w/c
      CRW   r/w   | HDP   r/w   | MOV   r/w   | PMP   r     | VSD   r
      CS1   r/w   | HDR   r     | MP3   r     | PNG   r/w   | WAV   r
      DCM   r     | HTML  r     | MP4   r/w   | PPM   r/w   | WDP   r/w
      DCP   r/w   | ICC   r/w/c | MPC   r     | PPT   r     | WEBP  r
      DCR   r     | ICS   r     | MPG   r     | PPTX  r     | WEBM  r
      DFONT r     | IDML  r     | MPO   r/w   | PS    r/w   | WMA   r
      DIVX  r     | IIQ   r/w   | MQV   r/w   | PSB   r/w   | WMV   r
      DJVU  r     | IND   r/w   | MRW   r/w   | PSD   r/w   | WV    r
      DLL   r     | INX   r     | MXF   r     | PSP   r     | X3F   r/w
      DNG   r/w   | ISO   r     | NEF   r/w   | QTIF  r/w   | XCF   r
      DOC   r     | ITC   r     | NRW   r/w   | RA    r     | XLS   r
      DOCX  r     | J2C   r     | NUMBERS r   | RAF   r/w   | XLSX  r
      DPX   r     | JNG   r/w   | O     r     | RAM   r     | XMP   r/w/c
      DR4   r/w/c | JP2   r/w   | ODP   r     | RAR   r     | ZIP   r
      DSS   r     | JPEG  r/w   | ODS   r     | RAW   r/w   |

      Meta Information
      EXIF           r/w/c  |  CIFF           r/w  |  Ricoh RMETA    r
      GPS            r/w/c  |  AFCP           r/w  |  Picture Info   r
      IPTC           r/w/c  |  Kodak Meta     r/w  |  Adobe APP14    r
      XMP            r/w/c  |  FotoStation    r/w  |  MPF            r
      MakerNotes     r/w/c  |  PhotoMechanic  r/w  |  Stim           r
      Photoshop IRB  r/w/c  |  JPEG 2000      r    |  DPX            r
      ICC Profile    r/w/c  |  DICOM          r    |  APE            r
      MIE            r/w/c  |  Flash          r    |  Vorbis         r
      JFIF           r/w/c  |  FlashPix       r    |  SPIFF          r
      Ducky APP12    r/w/c  |  QuickTime      r    |  DjVu           r
      PDF            r/w/c  |  Matroska       r    |  M2TS           r
      PNG            r/w/c  |  MXF            r    |  PE/COFF        r
      Canon VRD      r/w/c  |  PrintIM        r    |  AVCHD          r
      Nikon Capture  r/w/c  |  FLAC           r    |  ZIP            r
      GeoTIFF        r/w/c  |  ID3            r    |  (and more)

    Case is not significant for any command-line option (including tag and
    group names), except for single-character options when the corresponding
    upper-case option exists. Many single-character options have equivalent
    long-name versions (shown in brackets), and some options have inverses
    which are invoked with a leading double-dash. Unrecognized options are
    interpreted as tag names (for this reason, multiple single-character
    options may NOT be combined into one argument). Contrary to standard
    practice, options may appear after source file names on the exiftool
    command line.

  Option Summary
    Tag operations

      -TAG or --TAG                    Extract or exclude specified tag
      -TAG[+-]=[VALUE]                 Write new value for tag
      -TAG[+-]<=DATFILE                Write tag value from contents of file
      -TAG[+-]*SRCTAG*" on the command
         line after -tagsFromFile, and causes the value of *SRCTAG* to be
         copied from *SRCFILE* and written to *DSTTAG* in *FILE*. Note that
         this argument must be quoted to prevent shell redirection, and
         there is no "=" sign as when assigning new values. Source and/or
         destination tags may be prefixed by a group name and/or suffixed by
         "#". Wildcards are allowed in both the source and destination tag
         names. A destination group and/or tag name of "All" or "*" writes
         to the same family 1 group and/or tag name as the source. If no
         destination group is specified, the information is written to the
         preferred group. Whitespace around the ">" or "<" is ignored. As a
         convenience, "-tagsFromFile @" is assumed for any redirected tags
         which are specified without a prior -tagsFromFile option. Copied
         tags may also be added or deleted from a list with arguments of the
         form "-*SRCTAG*+<*DSTTAG*" or "-*SRCTAG*-<*DSTTAG*".

         An extension of the redirection feature allows strings involving
         tag names to be used on the right hand side of the "<" symbol with
         the syntax "-*DSTTAG*<*STR*", where tag names in *STR* are prefixed
         prefixed with a "$" symbol. See the -p option and the "Advanced
         formatting feature" section for more details about this syntax.
         Strings starting with a "=" sign must insert a single space after
         the "<" to avoid confusion with the "<=" operator which sets the
         tag value from the contents of a file. A single space at the start
         of the string is removed if it exists, but all other whitespace in
         the string is preserved. See note 8 below about using the
         redirection feature with list-type stags, shortcuts or when using
         wildcards in tag names.

         See "COPYING EXAMPLES" for examples using -tagsFromFile.


         1) Some tags (generally tags which may affect the appearance of the
         image) are considered "unsafe" to write, and are only copied if
         specified explicitly (ie. no wildcards). See the tag name
         documentation for more details about "unsafe" tags.

         2) Be aware of the difference between excluding a tag from being
         copied (--*TAG*), and deleting a tag (-*TAG*=). Excluding a tag
         prevents it from being copied to the destination image, but
         deleting will remove a pre-existing tag from the image.

         3) The maker note information is copied as a block, so it isn't
         affected like other information by subsequent tag assignments on
         the command line, and individual makernote tags may not be excluded
         from a block copy. Also, since the PreviewImage referenced from the
         maker notes may be rather large, it is not copied, and must be
         transferred separately if desired.

         4) The order of operations is to copy all specified tags at the
         point of the -tagsFromFile option in the command line. Any tag
         assignment to the right of the -tagsFromFile option is made after
         all tags are copied. For example, new tag values are set in the
         order One, Two, Three then Four with this command:

             exiftool -One=1 -tagsFromFile s.jpg -Two -Four=4 -Three d.jpg

         This is significant in the case where an overlap exists between the
         copied and assigned tags because later operations may override
         earlier ones.

         5) The normal behaviour of copied tags differs subtly from that of
         assigned tags for list-type tags. When copying to a list, each
         copied tag overrides any previous operations on the list. While
         this avoids duplicate list items when copying groups of tags from a
         file containing redundant information, it also prevents values of
         different tags from being copied into the same list when this is
         the intent. So a -addTagsFromFile option is provided which allows
         copying of multiple tags into the same list. eg)

             exiftool -addtagsfromfile @ "-subject out.args
             exiftool -@ out.args -sep ", " dst.jpg

         Note: Be careful when copying information with this technique since
         it is easy to write tags which are normally considered "unsafe".
         For instance, the FileName and Directory tags are excluded in the
         example above to avoid renaming and moving the destination file.
         Also note that the second command above will produce warning
         messages for any tags which are not writable.

         As well, the -sep option should be used as in the second command
         above to maintain separate list items when writing metadata back to
         image files, and the -struct option may be used when extracting to
         preserve structured XMP information.

    -b (-binary)
         Output requested metadata in binary format without tag names or
         descriptions. This option is mainly used for extracting embedded
         images or other binary data, but it may also be useful for some
         text strings since control characters (such as newlines) are not
         replaced by '.' as they are in the default output. List items are
         separated by a newline when extracted with the -b option. May be
         combined with "-j", "-php" or "-X" to extract binary data in JSON,
         PHP or XML format.

    -c *FMT* (-coordFormat)
         Set the print format for GPS coordinates. *FMT* uses the same
         syntax as the "printf" format string. The specifiers correspond to
         degrees, minutes and seconds in that order, but minutes and seconds
         are optional. For example, the following table gives the output for
         the same coordinate using various formats:

                     FMT                  Output
             -------------------    ------------------
             "%d deg %d' %.2f"\"    54 deg 59' 22.80"  (default for reading)
             "%d %d %.8f"           54 59 22.80000000  (default for copying)
             "%d deg %.4f min"      54 deg 59.3800 min
             "%.6f degrees"         54.989667 degrees


         1) To avoid loss of precision, the default coordinate format is
         different when copying tags using the -tagsFromFile option.

         2) If the hemisphere is known, a reference direction (N, S, E or W)
         is appended to each printed coordinate, but adding a "+" to the
         format specifier (eg. "%+.6f") prints a signed coordinate instead.

         3) This print formatting may be disabled with the -n option to
         extract coordinates as signed decimal degrees.

    -charset [[*TYPE*=]*CHARSET*]
         If *TYPE* is "ExifTool" or not specified, this option sets the
         ExifTool character encoding for output tag values when reading and
         input values when writing. The default ExifTool encoding is "UTF8".
         If no *CHARSET* is given, a list of available character sets is
         returned. Valid *CHARSET* values are:

             CHARSET     Alias(es)        Description
             ----------  ---------------  ----------------------------------
             UTF8        cp65001, UTF-8   UTF-8 characters (default)
             Latin       cp1252, Latin1   Windows Latin1 (West European)
             Latin2      cp1250           Windows Latin2 (Central European)
             Cyrillic    cp1251, Russian  Windows Cyrillic
             Greek       cp1253           Windows Greek
             Turkish     cp1254           Windows Turkish
             Hebrew      cp1255           Windows Hebrew
             Arabic      cp1256           Windows Arabic
             Baltic      cp1257           Windows Baltic
             Vietnam     cp1258           Windows Vietnamese
             Thai        cp874            Windows Thai
             MacRoman    cp10000, Roman   Macintosh Roman
             MacLatin2   cp10029          Macintosh Latin2 (Central Europe)
             MacCyrillic cp10007          Macintosh Cyrillic
             MacGreek    cp10006          Macintosh Greek
             MacTurkish  cp10081          Macintosh Turkish
             MacRomanian cp10010          Macintosh Romanian
             MacIceland  cp10079          Macintosh Icelandic
             MacCroatian cp10082          Macintosh Croatian

         *TYPE* may be "FileName" to specify the encoding of file names on
         the command line (ie. *FILE* arguments). In Windows, this triggers
         use of wide-character i/o routines, thus providing support for
         Unicode file names. See the "WINDOWS UNICODE FILE NAMES" section
         below for details.

         Other values of *TYPE* listed below are used to specify the
         internal encoding of various meta information formats.

             TYPE       Description                                  Default
             ---------  -------------------------------------------  -------
             EXIF       Internal encoding of EXIF "ASCII" strings    (none)
             ID3        Internal encoding of ID3v1 information       Latin
             IPTC       Internal IPTC encoding to assume when        Latin
                         IPTC:CodedCharacterSet is not defined
             Photoshop  Internal encoding of Photoshop IRB strings   Latin
             QuickTime  Internal encoding of QuickTime strings       MacRoman
             RIFF       Internal encoding of RIFF strings            0

         See  for
         more information about coded character sets, and the
         Image::ExifTool Options for more details about the -charset

         Export information in CSV format, or import information if
         *CSVFILE* is specified. When importing, the CSV file must be in
         exactly the same format as the exported file. The first row of the
         *CSVFILE* must be the ExifTool tag names (with optional group
         names) for each column of the file, and values must be separated by
         commas. A special "SourceFile" column specifies the files
         associated with each row of information (and a SourceFile of "*"
         may be used to define default tags to be imported for all files
         which are combined with any tags specified for the specific
         SourceFile processed). The following examples demonstrate basic use
         of this option:

             # generate CSV file with common tags from all images in a directory
             exiftool -common -csv dir > out.csv

             # update metadata for all images in a directory from CSV file
             exiftool -csv=a.csv dir

         Empty values are ignored when importing. Also, FileName and
         Directory columns are ignored if they exist (ie. ExifTool will not
         attempt to write these tags with a CSV import). To force a tag to
         be deleted, use the -f option and set the value to "-" in the CSV
         file (or to the MissingTagValue if this API option was used).
         Multiple databases may be imported in a single command.

         When exporting a CSV file, the -g or -G option to add group names
         to the tag headings. If the -a option is used to allow duplicate
         tag names, the duplicate tags are only included in the CSV output
         if the column headings are unique. Adding the -G4 option ensures a
         unique column heading for each tag. When exporting specific tags,
         the CSV columns are arranged in the same order as the specified
         tags provided the column headings exactly match the specified tag
         names, otherwise the columns are sorted in alphabetical order.

         When importing from a CSV file, only files specified on the command
         line are processed. Any extra entries in the CSV file are ignored.

         List-type tags are stored as simple strings in a CSV file, but the
         -sep option may be used to split them back into separate items when

         Special feature: -csv+=*CSVFILE* may be used to add items to
         existing lists. This affects only list-type tags. Also applies to
         the -j option.

         Note that this option is fundamentally different than all other
         output format options because it requires information from all
         input files to be buffered in memory before the output is written.
         This may result in excessive memory usage when processing a very
         large number of files with a single command. Also, it makes this
         option incompatible with the -w option.

    -d *FMT* (-dateFormat)
         Set the format for date/time tag values. The specifics of the *FMT*
         syntax are system dependent -- consult the "strftime" man page on
         your system for details. The default format is equivalent to
         "%Y:%m:%d %H:%M:%S". This option has no effect on date-only or
         time-only tags and ignores timezone information if present. Only
         one -d option may be used per command. Requires POSIX::strptime or
         Time::Piece for the inversion conversion when writing.

    -D (-decimal)
         Show tag ID number in decimal when extracting information.

    -E, -ex (-escapeHTML, -escapeXML)
         Escape characters in output values for HTML (-E) or XML (-ex). For
         HTML, all characters with Unicode code points above U+007F are
         escaped as well as the following 5 characters: & (&) ' (')
         " (") > (>) and < (<). For XML, only these 5 characters
         are escaped. The -E option is implied with -h, and -ex is implied
         with -X. The inverse conversion is applied when writing tags.

    -f (-forcePrint)
         Force printing of tags even if their values are not found. This
         option only applies when specific tags are requested on the command
         line (ie. not with wildcards or by "-all"). With this option, a
         dash ("-") is printed for the value of any missing tag, but the
         dash may be changed via the API MissingTagValue option. May also be
         used to add a 'flags' attribute to the -listx output, or to allow
         tags to be deleted when writing with the -csv=*CSVFILE* feature.

    -g[*NUM*][:*NUM*...] (-groupHeadings)
         Organize output by tag group. *NUM* specifies a group family
         number, and may be 0 (general location), 1 (specific location), 2
         (category), 3 (document number) or 4 (instance number). -g0 is
         assumed if a family number is not specified, and family numbers may
         be added wherever -g is mentioned in the documentation. Multiple
         families may be specified by separating them with colons. By
         default the resulting group name is simplified by removing any
         leading "Main:" and collapsing adjacent identical group names, but
         this can be avoided by placing a colon before the first family
         number (eg. -g:3:1). Use the -listg option to list group names for
         a specified family.

    -G[*NUM*][:*NUM*...] (-groupNames)
         Same as -g but print group name for each tag. -G0 is assumed if
         *NUM* is not specified. May be combined with a number of other
         options to add group names to the output. Note that *NUM* may be
         added wherever -G is mentioned in the documentation. See the -g
         option above for details.

    -h (-htmlFormat)
         Use HTML table formatting for output. Implies the -E option. The
         formatting options -D, -H, -g, -G, -l and -s may be used in
         combination with -h to influence the HTML format.

    -H (-hex)
         Show tag ID number in hexadecimal when extracting information.

         Generate a dynamic web page containing a hex dump of the EXIF
         information. This can be a very powerful tool for low-level
         analysis of EXIF information. The -htmlDump option is also invoked
         if the -v and -h options are used together. The verbose level
         controls the maximum length of the blocks dumped. An *OFFSET* may
         be given to specify the base for displayed offsets. If not
         provided, the EXIF/TIFF base offset is used. Use -htmlDump0 for
         absolute offsets. Currently only EXIF/TIFF and JPEG information is
         dumped, but the -u option can be used to give a raw hex dump of
         other file formats.

    -j[=*JSONFILE*] (-json)
         Use JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) formatting for console
         output, or import JSON file if *JSONFILE* is specified. This option
         may be combined with -g to organize the output into objects by
         group, or -G to add group names to each tag. List-type tags with
         multiple items are output as JSON arrays unless -sep is used. By
         default XMP structures are flattened into individual tags in the
         JSON output, but the original structure may be preserved with the
         -struct option (this also causes all list-type XMP tags to be
         output as JSON arrays, otherwise single-item lists are output as
         simple strings). The -a option is implied if the -g or -G options
         are used, otherwise it is ignored and duplicate tags are
         suppressed. Adding the -D or -H option changes tag values to JSON
         objects with "val" and "id" fields, and adding -l adds a "desc"
         field, and a "num" field if the numerical value is different from
         the converted "val". The -b option may be added to output binary
         data, encoded in base64 if necessary (indicated by "base64:" as the
         first 7 bytes of the value), and -t may be added to include tag
         table information (see -t for details). The JSON output is UTF-8
         regardless of any -L or -charset option setting, but the UTF-8
         validation is disabled if a character set other than UTF-8 is

         If *JSONFILE* is specified, the file is imported and the tag
         definitions from the file are used to set tag values on a per-file
         basis. The special "SourceFile" entry in each JSON object
         associates the information with a specific target file. An object
         with a missing SourceFile or a SourceFile of "*" defines default
         tags for all target files which are combined with any tags
         specified for the specific SourceFile processed. The imported JSON
         file must have the same format as the exported JSON files with the
         exception that the -g option is not compatible with the import file
         format (use -G instead). Additionally, tag names in the input JSON
         file may be suffixed with a "#" to disable print conversion.

         Unlike CSV import, empty values are not ignored, and will cause an
         empty value to be written if supported by the specific metadata
         type. Tags are deleted by using the -f option and setting the tag
         value to "-" (or to the MissingTagValue setting if this API option
         was used). Importing with -j+=*JSONFILE* causes new values to be
         added to existing lists.

    -l (-long)
         Use long 2-line Canon-style output format. Adds a description and
         unconverted value (if it is different from the converted value) to
         the XML, JSON or PHP output when -X, -j or -php is used. May also
         be combined with -listf, -listr or -listwf to add descriptions of
         the file types.

    -L (-latin)
         Use Windows Latin1 encoding (cp1252) for output tag values instead
         of the default UTF-8. When writing, -L specifies that input text
         values are Latin1 instead of UTF-8. Equivalent to "-charset latin".

    -lang [*LANG*]
         Set current language for tag descriptions and converted values.
         *LANG* is "de", "fr", "ja", etc. Use -lang with no other arguments
         to get a list of available languages. The default language is "en"
         if -lang is not specified. Note that tag/group names are always
         English, independent of the -lang setting, and translation of
         warning/error messages has not yet been implemented. May also be
         combined with -listx to output descriptions in one language only.

         By default, ExifTool uses UTF-8 encoding for special characters,
         but the the -L or -charset option may be used to invoke other

         Currently, the language support is not complete, but users are
         welcome to help improve this by submitting their own translations.
         To submit a set of translations, first use the -listx option and
         redirect the output to a file to generate an XML tag database, then
         add entries for other languages, zip this file, and email it to
         phil at owl.phy.queensu.ca for inclusion in ExifTool.

         Note: ExifTool uses Unicode::LineBreak if available to help
         preserve the column alignment of the plain text output for
         languages with a variable-width character set.

    -listItem *INDEX*
         For list-type tags, this causes only the item with the specified
         index to be extracted. *INDEX* is 0 for the first item in the list.
         Negative indices may also be used to reference items from the end
         of the list. Has no effect on single-valued tags. Also applies to
         tag values when copying, and in -if conditions.

    -n (--printConv)
         Disable print conversion for all tags. By default, extracted values
         are converted to a more human-readable format, but the -n option
         disables this conversion, revealing the machine-readable values.
         For example:

             > exiftool -Orientation -S a.jpg
             Orientation: Rotate 90 CW
             > exiftool -Orientation -S -n a.jpg
             Orientation: 6

         The print conversion may also be disabled on a per-tag basis by
         suffixing the tag name with a "#" character:

             > exiftool -Orientation# -Orientation -S a.jpg
             Orientation: 6
             Orientation: Rotate 90 CW

         These techniques may also be used to disable the inverse print
         conversion when writing. For example, the following commands all
         have the same effect:

             > exiftool -Orientation='Rotate 90 CW' a.jpg
             > exiftool -Orientation=6 -n a.jpg
             > exiftool -Orientation#=6 a.jpg

    -p *FMTFILE* or *STR* (-printFormat)
         Print output in the format specified by the given file or string.
         Tag names in the format file or string begin with a "$" symbol and
         may contain a leading group names and/or a trailing "#". Case is
         not significant. Braces "{}" may be used around the tag name to
         separate it from subsequent text. Use $$ to represent a "$" symbol,
         and $/ for a newline. Multiple -p options may be used, each
         contributing a line of text to the output. Lines beginning with
         "#[HEAD]" and "#[TAIL]" are output before the first processed file
         and after the last processed file respectively. Lines beginning
         with "#[SECT]" and "#[ENDS]" are output around each section of
         files. A section is defined as a group of consecutive files with
         the same section header (eg. files are grouped by directory if
         "#[SECT]" contains $directory). Lines beginning with "#[BODY]" and
         lines not beginning with "#" are output for each processed file.
         Other lines beginning with "#" are ignored. For example, this
         format file:

             # this is a comment line
             #[HEAD]-- Generated by ExifTool $exifToolVersion --
             File: $FileName - $DateTimeOriginal
             (f/$Aperture, ${ShutterSpeed}s, ISO $EXIF:ISO)
             #[TAIL]-- end --

         with this command:

             exiftool -p test.fmt a.jpg b.jpg

         produces output like this:

             -- Generated by ExifTool 10.56 --
             File: a.jpg - 2003:10:31 15:44:19
             (f/5.6, 1/60s, ISO 100)
             File: b.jpg - 2006:05:23 11:57:38
             (f/8.0, 1/13s, ISO 100)
             -- end --

         The values of List-type tags with multiple items and Shortcut tags
         representing multiple tags are joined according the the -sep option
         setting when interpolated in the string.

         When -ee (-extractEmbedded) is combined with -p, embedded documents
         are effectively processed as separate input files.

         If a specified tag does not exist, a minor warning is issued and
         the line with the missing tag is not printed. However, the -f
         option may be used to set the value of missing tags to '-' (but
         this may be configured via the MissingTagValue API option), or the
         -m option may be used to ignore minor warnings and leave the
         missing values empty.

         The "Advanced formatting feature" may be used to modify the values
         of individual tags with the -p option.

    -php Format output as a PHP Array. The -g, -G, -D, -H, -l, -sep and
         -struct options combine with -php, and duplicate tags are handled
         in the same way as with the -json option. As well, the -b option
         may be added to output binary data, and -t may be added to include
         tag table information (see -t for details). Here is a simple
         example showing how this could be used in a PHP script:


    -s[*NUM*] (-short)
         Short output format. Prints tag names instead of descriptions. Add
         *NUM* or up to 3 -s options for even shorter formats:

             -s1 or -s        - print tag names instead of descriptions
             -s2 or -s -s     - no extra spaces to column-align values
             -s3 or -s -s -s  - print values only (no tag names)

         Also effective when combined with -t, -h, -X or -listx options.

    -S (-veryShort)
         Very short format. The same as -s2 or two -s options. Tag names are
         printed instead of descriptions, and no extra spaces are added to
         column-align values.

    -sep *STR* (-separator)
         Specify separator string for items in list-type tags. When reading,
         the default is to join list items with ", ". When writing, this
         option causes values assigned to list-type tags to be split into
         individual items at each substring matching *STR* (otherwise they
         are not split by default). Space characters in *STR* match zero or
         more whitespace characters in the value.

         Note that an empty separator ("") is allowed, and will join items
         with no separator when reading, or split the value into individual
         characters when writing.

    -sort, --sort
         Sort output by tag description, or by tag name if the -s option is
         used. When sorting by description, the sort order will depend on
         the -lang option setting. Without the -sort option, tags appear in
         the order they were specified on the command line, or if not
         specified, the order they were extracted from the file. By default,
         tags are organized by groups when combined with the -g or -G
         option, but this grouping may be disabled with --sort.

    -struct, --struct
         Output structured XMP information instead of flattening to
         individual tags. This option works well when combined with the XML
         (-X) and JSON (-j) output formats. For other output formats, the
         structures are serialized into the same format as when writing
         structured information (see
         details). When copying, structured tags are copied by default
         unless --struct is used to disable this feature (although flattened
         tags may still be copied by specifying them individually unless
         -struct is used). These options have no effect when assigning new
         values since both flattened and structured tags may always be used
         when writing.

    -t (-tab)
         Output a tab-delimited list of description/values (useful for
         database import). May be combined with -s to print tag names
         instead of descriptions, or -S to print tag values only,
         tab-delimited on a single line. The -t option may be combined with
         -j, -php or -X to add tag table information (table "name", decimal
         tag "id", and "index" for cases where multiple conditional tags
         exist with the same ID).

    -T (-table)
         Output tag values in table form. Equivalent to -t -S -q -f.

    -v[*NUM*] (-verbose)
         Print verbose messages. *NUM* specifies the level of verbosity in
         the range 0-5, with higher numbers being more verbose. If *NUM* is
         not given, then each -v option increases the level of verbosity by
         1. With any level greater than 0, most other options are ignored
         and normal console output is suppressed unless specific tags are
         extracted. Using -v0 causes the console output buffer to be flushed
         after each line (which may be useful to avoid delays when piping
         exiftool output), and prints the name of each processed file when
         writing. Also see the -progress option.

    -w[+|!] *EXT* or *FMT* (-textOut)
         Write console output to files with names ending in *EXT*, one for
         each source file. The output file name is obtained by replacing the
         source file extension (including the '.') with the specified
         extension (and a '.' is added to the start of *EXT* if it doesn't
         already contain one). Alternatively, a *FMT* string may be used to
         give more control over the output file name and directory. In the
         format string, %d, %f and %e represent the directory, filename and
         extension of the source file, and %c represents a copy number which
         is automatically incremented if the file already exists. %d
         includes the trailing '/' if necessary, but %e does not include the
         leading '.'. For example:

             -w %d%f.txt       # same effect as "-w txt"
             -w dir/%f_%e.out  # write files to "dir" as "FILE_EXT.out"
             -w dir2/%d%f.txt  # write to "dir2", keeping dir structure
             -w a%c.txt        # write to "a.txt" or "a1.txt" or "a2.txt"...

         Existing files will not be overwritten unless an exclamation point
         is added to the option name (ie. -w! or -textOut!), or a plus sign
         to append to the existing file (ie. -w+ or -textOut+). Both may be
         used (ie. -w+! or -textOut+!) to overwrite output files that didn't
         exist before the command was run, and append the output from
         multiple source files. For example, to write one output file for
         all source files in each directory:

             exiftool -filename -createdate -T -w+! %d/out.txt -r DIR

         Capitalized format codes %D, %F, %E and %C provide slightly
         different alternatives to the lower case versions. %D does not
         include the trailing '/', %F is the full filename including
         extension, %E includes the leading '.', and %C increments the count
         for each processed file (see below).


         1) In a Windows BAT file the "%" character is represented by "%%",
         so an argument like "%d%f.txt" is written as "%%d%%f.txt".

         2) If the argument for -w does not contain a valid format code (eg.
         %f), then it is interpreted as a file extension. It is not possible
         to specify a simple filename as an argument -- creating a single
         output file from multiple source files is typically done by shell
         redirection, ie)

             exiftool FILE1 FILE2 ... > out.txt

         But if necessary, an empty format code may be used to force the
         argument to be interpreted as a format string, and the same result
         may be obtained without the use of shell redirection:

             exiftool -w+! %0fout.txt FILE1 FILE2 ...

         Advanced features:

         A substring of the original file name, directory or extension may
         be taken by specifying a field width immediately following the '%'
         character. If the width is negative, the substring is taken from
         the end. The substring position (characters to ignore at the start
         or end of the string) may be given by a second optional value after
         a decimal point. For example:

             Input File Name     Format Specifier    Output File Name
             ----------------    ----------------    ----------------
             Picture-123.jpg     %7f.txt             Picture.txt
             Picture-123.jpg     %-.4f.out           Picture.out
             Picture-123.jpg     %7f.%-3f            Picture.123
             Picture-123a.jpg    Meta%-3.1f.txt      Meta123.txt

         (Note that special characters may have a width of greater than

         For %d and %D, the field width/position specifiers may be applied
         to the directory levels instead of substring position by using a
         colon instead of a decimal point in the format specifier. For

             Source Dir     Format   Result       Notes
             ------------   ------   ----------   ------------------
             pics/2012/02   %2:d     pics/2012/   take top 2 levels
             pics/2012/02   %-:1d    pics/2012/   up one directory level
             pics/2012/02   %:1d     2012/02/     ignore top level
             pics/2012/02   %1:1d    2012/        take 1 level after top
             pics/2012/02   %-1:D    02           bottom level folder name
             /Users/phil    %:2d     phil/        ignore top 2 levels

         (Note that the root directory counts as one level when an absolute
         path is used as in the last example above.)

         For %c, these modifiers have a different effects. If a field width
         is given, the copy number is padded with zeros to the specified
         width. A leading '-' adds a dash before the copy number, and a '+'
         adds an underline. By default, the copy number is omitted from the
         first file of a given name, but this can be changed by adding a
         decimal point to the modifier. For example:

             -w A%-cZ.txt      # AZ.txt, A-1Z.txt, A-2Z.txt ...
             -w B%5c.txt       # B.txt, B00001.txt, B00002.txt ...
             -w C%.c.txt       # C0.txt, C1.txt, C2.txt ...
             -w D%-.c.txt      # D-0.txt, D-1.txt, D-2.txt ...
             -w E%-.4c.txt     # E-0000.txt, E-0001.txt, E-0002.txt ...
             -w F%-.4nc.txt    # F-0001.txt, F-0002.txt, F-0003.txt ...
             -w G%+c.txt       # G.txt, G_1.txt G_2.txt ...
             -w H%-lc.txt      # H.txt, H-b.txt, H-c.txt ...
             -w I.%.3uc.txt    # I.AAA.txt, I.AAB.txt, I.AAC.txt ...

         A special feature allows the copy number to be incremented for each
         processed file by using %C (upper case) instead of %c. This allows
         a sequential number to be added to output file names, even if the
         names are different. For %C, a copy number of zero is not omitted
         as it is with %c. The number before the decimal place gives the
         starting index, the number after the decimal place gives the field
         width. The following examples show the output filenames when used
         with the command "exiftool rose.jpg star.jpg jet.jpg ...":

             -w %C%f.txt       # 0rose.txt, 1star.txt, 2jet.txt
             -w %f-%10C.txt    # rose-10.txt, star-11.txt, jet-12.txt
             -w %.3C-%f.txt    # 000-rose.txt, 001-star.txt, 002-jet.txt
             -w %57.4C%f.txt   # 0057rose.txt, 0058star.txt, 0059jet.txt

         All format codes may be modified by 'l' or 'u' to specify lower or
         upper case respectively (ie. %le for a lower case file extension).
         When used to modify %c or %C, the numbers are changed to an
         alphabetical base (see example H above). Also, %c and %C may be
         modified by 'n' to count using natural numbers starting from 1,
         instead of 0 (see example F above).

         This same *FMT* syntax is used with the -o and -tagsFromFile
         options, although %c and %C are only valid for output file names.

    -W[+|!] *FMT* (-tagOut)
         This enhanced version of the -w option allows a separate output
         file to be created for each extracted tag. See the -w option
         documentation above for details of the basic functionality. Listed
         here are the differences between -W and -w:

         1) With -W, a new output file is created for each extracted tag.

         2) -W supports three additional format codes: %t, %g and %s
         represent the tag name, group name, and suggested extension for the
         output file (based on the format of the data). The %g code may be
         followed by a single digit to specify the group family number (eg.
         %g1), otherwise family 0 is assumed. The substring
         width/position/case specifiers may be used with these format codes
         in exactly the same way as with %f and %e.

         3) The argument for -W is interpreted as a file name if it contains
         no format codes. (For -w, this would be a file extension.) This
         change allows a simple file name to be specified, which, when
         combined with the append feature, provides a method to write
         metadata from multiple source files to a single output file without
         the need for shell redirection.

         4) Adding the -v option to -W generates a list of the tags and
         output file names instead of giving a verbose dump of the entire
         file. (Unless appending all output to one file for each source file
         by using -W+ with an output file *FMT* that does not contain %t, $g
         or %s.)

         5) Individual list items are stored in separate files when -W is
         combined with -b, but note that for separate files to be created %c
         or %C must be used in *FMT* to give the files unique names.

    -Wext *EXT*, --Wext *EXT* (-tagOutExt)
         This option is used to specify the type of output file(s) written
         by the -W option. An output file is written only if the suggested
         extension matches *EXT*. Multiple -Wext options may be used to
         write more than one type of file. Use --Wext to write all but the
         specified type(s).

    -X (-xmlFormat)
         Use ExifTool-specific RDF/XML formatting for console output.
         Implies the -a option, so duplicate tags are extracted. The
         formatting options -b, -D, -H, -l, -s, -sep, -struct and -t may be
         used in combination with -X to affect the output, but note that the
         tag ID (-D, -H and -t), binary data (-b) and structured output
         (-struct) options are not effective for the short output (-s).
         Another restriction of -s is that only one tag with a given group
         and name may appear in the output. Note that the tag ID options
         (-D, -H and -t) will produce non-standard RDF/XML unless the -l
         option is also used.

         By default, -X outputs flattened tags, so -struct should be added
         if required to preserve XMP structures. List-type tags with
         multiple values are formatted as an RDF Bag, but they are combined
         into a single string when -s or -sep is used. Using -L changes the
         XML encoding from "UTF-8" to "windows-1252". Other -charset
         settings change the encoding only if there is a corresponding
         standard XML character set. The -b option causes binary data values
         to be written, encoded in base64 if necessary. The -t option adds
         tag table information to the output (see -t for details).

         Note: This output is NOT the same as XMP because it uses
         dynamically-generated property names corresponding to the ExifTool
         tag names, and not the standard XMP properties. To write XMP
         instead, use the -o option with an XMP extension for the output

   Processing control
    -a, --a (-duplicates, --duplicates)
         Allow (-a) or suppress (--a) duplicate tag names to be extracted.
         By default, duplicate tags are suppressed unless the -ee or -X
         options are used or the Duplicates option is enabled in the
         configuration file. This option also has an affect when writing to
         allow duplicate Warning messages to be shown.

    -e (--composite)
         Extract existing tags only -- don't calculate composite tags.

    -ee (-extractEmbedded)
         Extract information from embedded documents in EPS files, embedded
         EPS information and JPEG and Jpeg2000 images in PDF files, embedded
         MPF images in JPEG and MPO files, streaming metadata in AVCHD
         videos, and the resource fork of Mac OS files. Implies the -a
         option. Use -g3 or -G3 to identify the originating document for
         extracted information. Embedded documents containing sub-documents
         are indicated with dashes in the family 3 group name. (eg. "Doc2-3"
         is the 3rd sub-document of the 2nd embedded document.) Note that
         this option may increase processing time substantially, especially
         for PDF files with many embedded images.

    -ext[+] *EXT*, --ext *EXT* (-extension)
         Process only files with (-ext) or without (--ext) a specified
         extension. There may be multiple -ext and --ext options. A plus
         sign may be added (ie. -ext+) to add the specified extension to the
         normally processed files. EXT may begin with a leading '.', and
         case is not significant. "*" may be used to process files with any
         extension (or none at all), as in the last three examples:

             exiftool -ext JPG DIR             # process only JPG files
             exiftool --ext cr2 --ext dng DIR  # supported files but CR2/DNG
             exiftool -ext+ txt DIR            # supported files plus TXT
             exiftool -ext "*" DIR             # process all files
             exiftool -ext "*" --ext xml DIR   # process all but XML files
             exiftool -ext "*" --ext . DIR     # all but those with no ext

         Using this option has two main advantages over specifying "*.*EXT*"
         on the command line: 1) It applies to files in subdirectories when
         combined with the -r option. 2) The -ext option is
         case-insensitive, which is useful when processing files on
         case-sensitive filesystems.

    -F[*OFFSET*] (-fixBase)
         Fix the base for maker notes offsets. A common problem with some
         image editors is that offsets in the maker notes are not adjusted
         properly when the file is modified. This may cause the wrong values
         to be extracted for some maker note entries when reading the edited
         file. This option allows an integer *OFFSET* to be specified for
         adjusting the maker notes base offset. If no *OFFSET* is given,
         ExifTool takes its best guess at the correct base. Note that
         exiftool will automatically fix the offsets for images which store
         original offset information (eg. newer Canon models). Offsets are
         fixed permanently if -F is used when writing EXIF to an image. eg)

             exiftool -F -exif:resolutionunit=inches image.jpg

         Increase speed of extracting information. With this option,
         ExifTool will not scan to the end of a JPEG image to check for an
         AFCP or PreviewImage trailer, or past the first comment in GIF
         images or the audio/video data in WAV/AVI files to search for
         additional metadata. These speed benefits are small when reading
         images directly from disk, but can be substantial if piping images
         through a network connection. For more substantial speed benefits,
         -fast2 also causes exiftool to avoid extracting any EXIF MakerNote
         information. -fast3 avoids processing the file entirely, and
         returns only an initial guess at FileType and the pseudo System

    -fileOrder [-]*TAG*
         Set file processing order according to the sorted value of the
         specified *TAG*. For example, to process files in order of date:

             exiftool -fileOrder DateTimeOriginal DIR

         Additional -fileOrder options may be added for secondary sort keys.
         Numbers are sorted numerically, and all other values are sorted
         alphabetically. The sort order may be reversed by prefixing the tag
         name with a "-" (eg. "-fileOrder -createdate"). Print conversion of
         the sorted values is disabled with the -n option, or a "#" appended
         to the tag name. Other formatting options (eg. -d) have no effect
         on the sorted values. Note that the -fileOrder option has a large
         performance impact since it involves an additional processing pass
         of each file.

    -i *DIR* (-ignore)
         Ignore specified directory name. *DIR* may be either an individual
         folder name, or a full path. If a full path is specified, it must
         match the Directory tag exactly to be ignored. Use multiple -i
         options to ignore more than one directory name. A special *DIR*
         value of "SYMLINKS" (case sensitive) may be specified to ignore
         symbolic links when the -r option is used.

    -if *EXPR*
         Specify a condition to be evaluated before processing each *FILE*.
         *EXPR* is a Perl-like logic expression containing tag names
         prefixed by "$" symbols. It is evaluated with the tags from each
         *FILE* in turn, and the file is processed only if the expression
         returns true. Unlike Perl variable names, tag names are not case
         sensitive and may contain a hyphen. As well, tag names may have a
         leading group names separated by colons, and/or a trailing "#"
         character to disable print conversion. The expression $GROUP:all
         evaluates to 1 if any tag exists in the specified "GROUP", or 0
         otherwise (see note 2 below). When multiple -if options are used,
         all conditions must be satisfied to process the file. Returns an
         exit status of 1 if all files fail the condition. Below are a few

             # extract shutterspeed from all Canon images in a directory
             exiftool -shutterspeed -if "$make eq 'Canon'" dir

             # add one hour to all images created on or after Apr. 2, 2006
             exiftool -alldates+=1 -if "$CreateDate ge '2006:04:02'" dir

             # set EXIF ISO value if possible, unless it is set already
             exiftool "-exif:iso nef.txt
             exiftool -@ nef.txt -srcfile %d%f.xmp ...

         5) The -a option has no effect on the evaluation of the expression,
         and the values of duplicate tags are accessible only by specifying
         a group name (such as a family 4 instance number, eg. $Copy1:TAG,
         $Copy2:TAG, etc).

    -m (-ignoreMinorErrors)
         Ignore minor errors and warnings. This enables writing to files
         with minor errors and disables some validation checks which could
         result in minor warnings. Generally, minor errors/warnings indicate
         a problem which usually won't result in loss of metadata if
         ignored. However, there are exceptions, so ExifTool leaves it up to
         you to make the final decision. Minor errors and warnings are
         indicated by "[minor]" at the start of the message. Warnings which
         affect processing when ignored are indicated by "[Minor]" (with a
         capital "M").

    -o *OUTFILE* or *FMT* (-out)
         Set the output file or directory name when writing information.
         Without this option, when any "real" tags are written the original
         file is renamed to "FILE_original" and output is written to *FILE*.
         When writing only FileName and/or Directory "pseudo" tags, -o
         causes the file to be copied instead of moved, but directories
         specified for either of these tags take precedence over that
         specified by the -o option.

         *OUTFILE* may be "-" to write to stdout. The output file name may
         also be specified using a *FMT* string in which %d, %f and %e
         represent the directory, file name and extension of *FILE*. Also,
         %c may be used to add a copy number. See the -w option for *FMT*
         string examples.

         The output file is taken to be a directory name if it already
         exists as a directory or if the name ends with '/'. Output
         directories are created if necessary. Existing files will not be
         overwritten. Combining the -overwrite_original option with -o
         causes the original source file to be erased after the output file
         is successfully written.

         A special feature of this option allows the creation of certain
         types of files from scratch, or with the metadata from another type
         of file. The following file types may be created using this

             XMP, EXIF, EXV, MIE, ICC/ICM, VRD, DR4

         The output file type is determined by the extension of *OUTFILE*
         (specified as "-.EXT" when writing to stdout). The output file is
         then created from a combination of information in *FILE* (as if the
         -tagsFromFile option was used), and tag values assigned on the
         command line. If no *FILE* is specified, the output file may be
         created from scratch using only tags assigned on the command line.

         Overwrite the original *FILE* (instead of preserving it by adding
         "_original" to the file name) when writing information to an image.
         Caution: This option should only be used if you already have
         separate backup copies of your image files. The overwrite is
         implemented by renaming a temporary file to replace the original.
         This deletes the original file and replaces it with the edited
         version in a single operation. When combined with -o, this option
         causes the original file to be deleted if the output file was
         successfully written (ie. the file is moved instead of copied).

         Similar to -overwrite_original except that an extra step is added
         to allow the original file attributes to be preserved. For example,
         on a Mac this causes the original file creation date, type,
         creator, label color, icon, Finder tags, other extended attributes
         and hard links to the file to be preserved (but note that the Mac
         OS resource fork is always preserved unless specifically deleted
         with "-rsrc:all="). This is implemented by opening the original
         file in update mode and replacing its data with a copy of a
         temporary file before deleting the temporary. The extra step
         results in slower performance, so the -overwrite_original option
         should be used instead unless necessary.

    -P (-preserve)
         Preserve the filesystem modification date/time ("FileModifyDate")
         of the original file when writing. Note that some filesystems store
         a creation date (Windows "FileCreateDate" or Mac
         "MDItemFSCreationDate") which is not affected by this option. The
         creation date is preserved on Windows systems where Win32API::File
         and Win32::API are available regardless of this setting. For other
         systems, the -overwrite_original_in_place option may be used if
         necessary to preserve the creation date. This option is superseded
         by any value written to the FileModifyDate tag.

    -password *PASSWD*
         Specify password to allow processing of password-protected PDF
         documents. If a password is required but not given, a warning is
         issued and the document is not processed. This option is ignored if
         a password is not required.

         Show the progress when processing files. The progress count appears
         in brackets after the name of each processed file, and gives the
         current file number and the total number of files to be processed.
         Implies the -v0 option if *TITLE* is not used, printing the name of
         each processed file when writing. When combined with the -if
         option, the total count includes all files before the condition is
         applied, but files that fail the condition will not have their
         names printed.

         If followed by a colon (ie. -progress:), the console window title
         is set according to the specified *TITLE* string. If no *TITLE* is
         given, a default *TITLE* string of "ExifTool %p%%" is assumed. In
         the string, %f represents the file name, %p is the progress as a
         percent, %r is the progress as a ratio, and %% is a % character.
         May be combined with the normal -progress option to also show the
         progress count in console messages. (Note: For this feature to
         function correctly on Mac/Linux, stderr must go to the console.)

    -q (-quiet)
         Quiet processing. One -q suppresses normal informational messages,
         and a second -q suppresses warnings as well. Error messages can not
         be suppressed, although minor errors may be downgraded to warnings
         with the -m option, which may then be suppressed with "-q -q".

    -r[.] (-recurse)
         Recursively process files in subdirectories. Only meaningful if
         *FILE* is a directory name. Subdirectories with names beginning
         with "." are not processed unless "." is added to the option name
         (ie. -r. or -recurse.). By default, exiftool will also follow
         symbolic links to directories if supported by the system, but this
         may be disabled with "-i SYMLINKS" (see the -i option for details).

         Scan all files (even unsupported formats) for XMP information
         unless found already. When combined with the -fast option, only
         unsupported file types are scanned. Warning: It can be time
         consuming to scan large files.

    -u (-unknown)
         Extract values of unknown tags. Add another -u to also extract
         unknown information from binary data blocks. This option applies to
         tags with numerical tag ID's, and causes tag names like
         "Exif_0xc5d9" to be generated for unknown information. It has no
         effect on information types which have human-readable tag ID's
         (such as XMP), since unknown tags are extracted automatically from
         these formats.

    -U (-unknown2)
         Extract values of unknown tags as well as unknown information from
         some binary data blocks. This is the same as two -u options.

    -wm *MODE* (-writeMode)
         Set mode for writing/creating tags. *MODE* is a string of one or
         more characters from the list below. Write mode is "wcg" unless
         otherwise specified.

             w - Write existing tags
             c - Create new tags
             g - create new Groups as necessary

         For example, use "-wm cg" to only create new tags (and avoid
         editing existing ones).

         The level of the group is the SubDirectory level in the metadata
         structure. For XMP or IPTC this is the full XMP/IPTC block (the
         family 0 group), but for EXIF this is the individual IFD (the
         family 1 group).

    -z (-zip)
         When reading, causes information to be extracted from .gz and .bz2
         compressed images. (Only one image per archive. Requires gzip and
         bzip2 to be installed on the system.) When writing, causes
         compressed information to be written if supported by the metadata
         format. (eg. PNG supports compressed textual metadata.) This option
         also disables the recommended padding in embedded XMP, saving 2424
         bytes when writing XMP in a file.

   Other options
    -@ *ARGFILE*
         Read command-line arguments from the specified file. The file
         contains one argument per line (NOT one option per line -- some
         options require additional arguments, and all arguments must be
         placed on separate lines). Blank lines and lines beginning with "#"
         are ignored. White space at the start of a line is removed. Normal
         shell processing of arguments is not performed, which among other
         things means that arguments should not be quoted and spaces are
         treated as any other character. *ARGFILE* may exist relative to
         either the current directory or the exiftool directory unless an
         absolute pathname is given.

         For example, the following *ARGFILE* will set the value of
         Copyright to "Copyright YYYY, Phil Harvey", where "YYYY" is the
         year of CreateDate:

             -copyright\0)()d" is assumed if the
    expression is empty (ie. "${TAG;}"). This removes the characters / \ ? *
    : | < > and null from the printed value. (These characters are illegal
    in Windows file names, so this feature is useful if tag values are used
    in file names.)

    ExifTool provides a "DateFmt" utility to simplify reformatting of
    individual date/time values. The function acts on a standard
    EXIF-formatted date/time value in $_ and formats it according to the
    specified format string (see the -d option). For example:

        exiftool -p "${createdate#;DateFmt('%Y-%m-%d_%H%M%S')}" a.jpg

    A "NoDups" utility is also provided to remove duplicate items from a
    list with a separator specified by the -sep option. This function is
    most useful when copying list-type tags. For example, the following
    command may be used to remove duplicate Keywords:

        exiftool -sep "##" "-keywords<${keywords;NoDups}" a.jpg

    The -sep option is necessary to split the string back into individual
    list items when writing to a list-type tag.

    An optional flag argument may be set to 1 to cause "NoDups" to return
    undef if no duplicates existed, thus preventing the file from being
    rewritten unnecessarily:

        exiftool -sep "##" "-keywords<${keywords;NoDups(1)}" a.jpg

    Note that function names are case sensitive.

    In Windows, by default, file and directory names are specified on the
    command line (or in arg files) using the system code page, which varies
    with the system settings. Unfortunately, these code pages are not
    complete character sets, so not all file names may be represented.

    ExifTool 9.79 and later allow the file name encoding to be specified
    with "-charset filename=CHARSET", where "CHARSET" is the name of a valid
    ExifTool character set, preferably "UTF8" (see the -charset option for a
    complete list). Setting this triggers the use of Windows wide-character
    i/o routines, thus providing support for all Unicode file names. But
    note that it is not trivial to pass properly encoded file names on the
    Windows command line (see
     for details), so
    placing them in a UTF-8 encoded -@ argfile is recommended if possible.

    A warning is issued if a specified filename contains special characters
    and the filename character set was not provided. However, the warning
    may be disabled by setting "-charset filename=""", and ExifTool may
    still function correctly if the system code page matches the character
    set used for the file names.

    When a directory name is provided, the file name encoding need not be
    specified (unless the directory name contains special characters), and
    ExifTool will automatically use wide-character routines to scan the

    The filename character set applies to the *FILE* arguments as well as
    filename arguments of -@, -geotag, -o, -p, -srcfile, -tagsFromFile,
    -csv=, -j= and -*TAG*<=. However, it does not apply to the -config
    filename, which always uses the system character set. The "-charset
    filename=" option must come before the -@ option to be effective, but
    the order doesn't matter with respect to other options.


    1) FileName and Directory tag values still use the same encoding as
    other tag values, and are converted to/from the filename character set
    when writing/reading if specified.

    2) Unicode support is not yet implemented for other Windows-based
    systems like Cygwin.

    3) See "WRITING READ-ONLY FILES" below for a note about editing
    read-only files with Unicode names.

    In general, ExifTool may be used to write metadata to read-only files
    provided that the user has write permission in the directory. However,
    there are three cases where file write permission is also required:

    1) When using the -overwrite_original_in_place option.

    2) When writing only pseudo System tags (eg. FileModifyDate).

    3) On Windows if the file has Unicode characters in its name, and a) the
    -overwrite_original option is used, or b) the "_original" backup already

    exiftool -a -u -g1 a.jpg
         Print all meta information in an image, including duplicate and
         unknown tags, sorted by group (for family 1).

    exiftool -common dir
         Print common meta information for all images in "dir". "-common" is
         a shortcut tag representing common EXIF meta information.

    exiftool -T -createdate -aperture -shutterspeed -iso dir > out.txt
         List specified meta information in tab-delimited column form for
         all images in "dir" to an output text file named "out.txt".

    exiftool -s -ImageSize -ExposureTime b.jpg
         Print ImageSize and ExposureTime tag names and values.

    exiftool -l -canon c.jpg d.jpg
         Print standard Canon information from two image files.

    exiftool -r -w .txt -common pictures
         Recursively extract common meta information from files in
         "pictures" directory, writing text output to ".txt" files with the
         same names.

    exiftool -b -ThumbnailImage image.jpg > thumbnail.jpg
         Save thumbnail image from "image.jpg" to a file called

    exiftool -b -JpgFromRaw -w _JFR.JPG -ext NEF -r .
         Recursively extract JPG image from all Nikon NEF files in the
         current directory, adding "_JFR.JPG" for the name of the output JPG

    exiftool -a -b -W %d%f_%t%-c.%s -preview:all dir
         Extract all types of preview images (ThumbnailImage, PreviewImage,
         JpgFromRaw, etc.) from files in directory "dir", adding the tag
         name to the output preview image file names.

    exiftool -d "%r %a, %B %e, %Y" -DateTimeOriginal -S -s -ext jpg .
         Print formatted date/time for all JPG files in the current

    exiftool -IFD1:XResolution -IFD1:YResolution image.jpg
         Extract image resolution from EXIF IFD1 information (thumbnail
         image IFD).

    exiftool "-*resolution*" image.jpg
         Extract all tags with names containing the word "Resolution" from
         an image.

    exiftool -xmp:author:all -a image.jpg
         Extract all author-related XMP information from an image.

    exiftool -xmp -b a.jpg > out.xmp
         Extract complete XMP data record intact from "a.jpg" and write it
         to "out.xmp" using the special "XMP" tag (see the Extra tags in

    exiftool -p "$filename has date $dateTimeOriginal" -q -f dir
         Print one line of output containing the file name and
         DateTimeOriginal for each image in directory "dir".

    exiftool -ee -p "$gpslatitude, $gpslongitude, $gpstimestamp" a.m2ts
         Extract all GPS positions from an AVCHD video.

    exiftool -icc_profile -b -w icc image.jpg
         Save complete ICC_Profile from an image to an output file with the
         same name and an extension of ".icc".

    exiftool -htmldump -w tmp/%f_%e.html t/images
         Generate HTML pages from a hex dump of EXIF information in all
         images from the "t/images" directory. The output HTML files are
         written to the "tmp" directory (which is created if it didn't
         exist), with names of the form "FILENAME_EXT.html".

    exiftool -a -b -ee -embeddedimage -W Image_%.3g3.%s file.pdf
         Extract embedded JPG and JP2 images from a PDF file. The output
         images will have file names like "Image_#.jpg" or "Image_#.jp2",
         where "#" is the ExifTool family 3 embedded document number for the

    Note that quotes are necessary around arguments which contain certain
    special characters such as ">", "<" or any white space. These quoting
    techniques are shell dependent, but the examples below will work in
    the Windows CMD shell.

    exiftool -Comment="This is a new comment" dst.jpg
         Write new comment to a JPG image (replaces any existing comment).

    exiftool -comment= -o newdir -ext jpg .
         Remove comment from all JPG images in the current directory,
         writing the modified images to a new directory.

    exiftool -keywords=EXIF -keywords=editor dst.jpg
         Replace existing keyword list with two new keywords ("EXIF" and

    exiftool -Keywords+=word -o newfile.jpg src.jpg
         Copy a source image to a new file, and add a keyword ("word") to
         the current list of keywords.

    exiftool -exposurecompensation+=-0.5 a.jpg
         Decrement the value of ExposureCompensation by 0.5 EV. Note that +=
         with a negative value is used for decrementing because the -=
         operator is used for conditional deletion (see next example).

    exiftool -credit-=xxx dir
         Delete Credit information from all files in a directory where the
         Credit value was "xxx".

    exiftool -xmp:description-de="kühl" -E dst.jpg
         Write alternate language for XMP:Description, using HTML character
         escaping to input special characters.

    exiftool -all= dst.jpg
         Delete all meta information from an image. Note: You should NOT do
         this to RAW images (except DNG) since proprietary RAW image formats
         often contain information in the makernotes that is necessary for
         converting the image.

    exiftool -all= -comment="lonely" dst.jpg
         Delete all meta information from an image and add a comment back
         in. (Note that the order is important: -comment="lonely" -all=
         would also delete the new comment.)

    exiftool -all= --jfif:all dst.jpg
         Delete all meta information except JFIF group from an image.

    exiftool -Photoshop:All= dst.jpg
         Delete Photoshop meta information from an image (note that the
         Photoshop information also includes IPTC).

    exiftool -r -XMP-crss:all= DIR
         Recursively delete all XMP-crss information from images in a

    exiftool "-ThumbnailImage<=thumb.jpg" dst.jpg
         Set the thumbnail image from specified file (Note: The quotes are
         necessary to prevent shell redirection).

    exiftool "-JpgFromRaw<=%d%f_JFR.JPG" -ext NEF -r .
         Recursively write JPEG images with filenames ending in "_JFR.JPG"
         to the JpgFromRaw tag of like-named files with extension ".NEF" in
         the current directory. (This is the inverse of the "-JpgFromRaw"
         command of the "READING EXAMPLES" section above.)

    exiftool -DateTimeOriginal-="0:0:0 1:30:0" dir
         Adjust original date/time of all images in directory "dir" by
         subtracting one hour and 30 minutes. (This is equivalent to
         "-DateTimeOriginal-=1.5". See Image::ExifTool::Shift.pl for

    exiftool -createdate+=3 -modifydate+=3 a.jpg b.jpg
         Add 3 hours to the CreateDate and ModifyDate timestamps of two

    exiftool -AllDates+=1:30 -if "$make eq 'Canon'" dir
         Shift the values of DateTimeOriginal, CreateDate and ModifyDate
         forward by 1 hour and 30 minutes for all Canon images in a
         directory. (The AllDates tag is provided as a shortcut for these
         three tags, allowing them to be accessed via a single tag.)

    exiftool -xmp:city=Kingston image1.jpg image2.nef
         Write a tag to the XMP group of two images. (Without the "xmp:"
         this tag would get written to the IPTC group since "City" exists in
         both, and IPTC is preferred by default.)

    exiftool -LightSource-="Unknown (0)" dst.tiff
         Delete "LightSource" tag only if it is unknown with a value of 0.

    exiftool -whitebalance-=auto -WhiteBalance=tung dst.jpg
         Set "WhiteBalance" to "Tungsten" only if it was previously "Auto".

    exiftool -comment-= -comment="new comment" a.jpg
         Write a new comment only if the image doesn't have one already.

    exiftool -o %d%f.xmp dir
         Create XMP meta information data files for all images in "dir".

    exiftool -o test.xmp -owner=Phil -title="XMP File"
         Create an XMP data file only from tags defined on the command line.

    exiftool "-ICC_Profile<=%d%f.icc" image.jpg
         Write ICC_Profile to an image from a ".icc" file of the same name.

    exiftool -hierarchicalkeywords="{keyword=one,children={keyword=B}}"
         Write structured XMP information. See
          for more

    exiftool -trailer:all= image.jpg
         Delete any trailer found after the end of image (EOI) in a JPEG
         file. A number of digital cameras store a large PreviewImage after
         the JPEG EOI, and the file size may be reduced significantly by
         deleting this trailer. See the JPEG Tags documentation for a list
         of recognized JPEG trailers.

    These examples demonstrate the ability to copy tag values between files.

    exiftool -tagsFromFile src.cr2 dst.jpg
         Copy the values of all writable tags from "src.cr2" to "dst.jpg",
         writing the information to same-named tags in the preferred groups.

    exiftool -TagsFromFile src.jpg -all:all dst.jpg
         Copy the values of all writable tags from "src.jpg" to "dst.jpg",
         preserving the original tag groups.

    exiftool -all= -tagsfromfile src.jpg -exif:all dst.jpg
         Erase all meta information from "dst.jpg" image, then copy EXIF
         tags from "src.jpg".

    exiftool -exif:all= -tagsfromfile @ -all:all -unsafe bad.jpg
         Rebuild all EXIF meta information from scratch in an image. This
         technique can be used in JPEG images to repair corrupted EXIF
         information which otherwise could not be written due to errors. The
         "Unsafe" tag is a shortcut for unsafe EXIF tags in JPEG images
         which are not normally copied. See the tag name documentation for
         more details about unsafe tags.

    exiftool -Tagsfromfile a.jpg out.xmp
         Copy meta information from "a.jpg" to an XMP data file. If the XMP
         data file "out.xmp" already exists, it will be updated with the new
         information. Otherwise the XMP data file will be created. Only
         metadata-only files may be created like this (files containing
         images may be edited but not created). See "WRITING EXAMPLES" above
         for another technique to generate XMP files.

    exiftool -tagsFromFile a.jpg -XMP:All= -ThumbnailImage= -m b.jpg
         Copy all meta information from "a.jpg" to "b.jpg", deleting all XMP
         information and the thumbnail image from the destination.

    exiftool -TagsFromFile src.jpg -title -author=Phil dst.jpg
         Copy title from one image to another and set a new author name.

    exiftool -TagsFromFile a.jpg -ISO -TagsFromFile b.jpg -comment dst.jpg
         Copy ISO from one image and Comment from another image to a
         destination image.

    exiftool -tagsfromfile src.jpg -exif:all --subifd:all dst.jpg
         Copy only the EXIF information from one image to another, excluding
         SubIFD tags.

    exiftool "-FileModifyDate for additional
    documentation and examples.

    exiftool -filename=new.jpg dir/old.jpg
         Rename "old.jpg" to "new.jpg" in directory "dir".

    exiftool -directory=%e dir
         Move all files from directory "dir" into directories named by the
         original file extensions.

    exiftool "-Directory for additional

    exiftool -geotag track.log a.jpg
         Geotag an image ("a.jpg") from position information in a GPS track
         log ("track.log"). Since the "Geotime" tag is not specified, the
         value of DateTimeOriginal is used for geotagging. Local system time
         is assumed unless DateTimeOriginal contains a timezone.

    exiftool -geotag t.log -geotime="2009:04:02 13:41:12-05:00" a.jpg
         Geotag an image with the GPS position for a specific time.

    exiftool -geotag log.gpx "-xmp:geotime out.gpx
         Generate a GPX track log from all images in directory "dir". This
         example uses the "gpx.fmt" file included in the full ExifTool
         distribution package and assumes that the images in "dir" have all
         been previously geotagged.

    type a.jpg | exiftool -
         Extract information from stdin.

    exiftool image.jpg -thumbnailimage -b | exiftool -
         Extract information from an embedded thumbnail image.

    type a.jpg | exiftool -iptc:keywords+=fantastic - > b.jpg
         Add an IPTC keyword in a pipeline, saving output to a new file.

    curl -s http://a.domain.com/bigfile.jpg | exiftool -fast -
         Extract information from an image over the internet using the cURL
         utility. The -fast option prevents exiftool from scanning for
         trailer information, so only the meta information header is

    exiftool a.jpg -thumbnailimage -b | exiftool -comment=wow - | exiftool
    a.jpg "-thumbnailimage<=-"
         Add a comment to an embedded thumbnail image. (Why anyone would
         want to do this I don't know, but I've included this as an example
         to illustrate the flexibility of ExifTool.)

    The exiftool application exits with a status of 0 on success, or 1 if an
    error occurred or if all files failed the -if condition (for any of the
    commands if -execute was used).

    Copyright 2003-2017, Phil Harvey

    This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
    the same terms as Perl itself.

    Image::ExifTool(3pm), Image::ExifTool::TagNames(3pm),
    Image::ExifTool::Shortcuts(3pm), Image::ExifTool::Shift.pl